It is an administrative or judicial decision or act, stating or declaring the stay of a non-EU citizen to be irregular and imposing or stating an obligation on that person to return. It is imposed in situations described by the rules, e.g. if your stay in Poland becomes undocumented, i.e. you stay without a valid passport or visa, or if you have exceeded the permissible period of stay under the visa-free regime.
After receiving the decision on the obligation to leave Poland, you will not be able to come back for the period specified in the decision. It is so-called entry ban. You have the right to appeal against this decision.